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URINE ANALYSIS / URINE ROUTINE EXAMINATION

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REASON FOR TESTING OF URINE ANALYSIS


Routine urine examination is commonly done as a routine health examination. It can be ordered specifically in certain conditions like:

  • Pregnancy
  • Painful and frequent urination
  • Abdominal pain
  • Blood in urine
  • Fever
  • Kidney disorders

Urine examination can be done repeatedly in certain cases to monitor certain diseases and their outcome.


WHAT IS BEING TESTED


Urine is the most important excretory product of body and is a window to the functionality of the human body. Urine is formed after filtration of the blood in the glomeruli of the Kidney. Hence it provide valuable information regarding the overall health of patient. Routine examination involves 3 basic examinations.

  • Gross / physical examination
  • Chemical screening
  • Microscopic examination of the sediment

Each of the above examination are further sub classified into basic examination as described below.

Gross examination
  • Colour
  • Clarity
  • Odour
  • Specific gravity

Chemical screening
  • Urine pH
  • Protein
  • Glucose
  • Ketones
  • Blood
  • Bilirubin
  • Nitrite

Microscopic examination
  • Erythrocyte
  • Leukocyte
  • Epithelial cells
  • Cast
  • Crystal

INTERPRETATION OF URINE ANALYSIS TEST RESULT


ABNORMAL CONSTITUENT CAUSE
Albumin (Protein) Physiological-
  • Physical exertion
  • Pregnancy
  • Heavy protein consumption

Pathological-
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Bacterial infection

Glucose Pathological-
  • Diabetes mellitus

Ketone Pathological-
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Starvation
  • Diarrhoea

Bilirubin Pathological-
  • Liver disease
  • Hepatitis
  • Obstructive bile disease
  • Cirrhosis

Haemoglobin Pathological-
  • Transfusion reaction
  • Burn
  • Haemolytic anaemia
  • Renal disease

Red Blood cell(RBC) Pathological-
  • Renal stone
  • Physical trauma
  • Tumour
  • Glomerulonephritis

White blood cell (Pus cell) Pathological-
  • Urinary tract infection

Nitrite (Presence of bacteria) Pathological-
  • Urinary tract infection


URINE ANALYSIS REFERENCE RANGE


Normal values are as follows:
  • Colour  -  Yellow (light/pale to dark/deep amber)
  • Clarity/turbidity  -  Clear or cloudy
  • pH  -  4.5-8
  • Specific gravity  -  1.005-1.025
  • Glucose  -  < 130 mg/dL
  • Ketones  -  None
  • Nitrites  -  Negative
  • Bilirubin  -  Negative
  • Blood  -  <3 RBCs
  • Protein  -  <150 mg/d
  • RBCs  -  <2 RBCs/hpf
  • WBCs  -  <2-5 WBCs/hpf
  • Squamous epithelial cells  -  <15-20 squamous epithelial cells/hpf
  • Casts  -  0-5 hyaline casts/lpf
  • Crystals  -  Occasionally
  • Bacteria  -  None
  • Yeast  -  None

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