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KIDNEY FUNCTION TEST / RENAL FUNCTION TEST / KFT



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KIDNEY FUNCTION TEST / RENAL FUNCTION TEST / KFT


Why is Kidney Function Test / Renal Function Test Prescribed


Kidneys are responsible for cleaning up the body. They are critical for production of Vitamin D, red blood cells and hormones to regulate blood pressure. Diabetes and hypertension are the leading causes of kidney failure in India.


Kidney function test is ordered in patients with following symptoms:

  • Puffiness of face and eyes
  • Swelling in hands and feet
  • Difficulty in urination or blood in urine or foamy urine
  • Back pain
  • High blood pressure
  • Some medicines cause kidney damage as a side effect

It is also ordered in patients with following risk factors which lead to renal dysfunction:


  • diabetes
  • cardiovascular disease
  • obesity
  • elevated cholesterol
  • high blood pressure (hypertension)
  • family history of renal disease
KFT-Kidney-Function-Test

What is being tested in Kidney Function Test / Renal Function Test


  • Electrolytes
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Chloride
  • Urea
  • Creatinine
  • Uric acid
  • Calcium

Interpretation of results of Kidney Function Test / Renal Function Test


Urea -

Increased -

  • Heavy protein meal
  • Severe stress (fever, myocardial infarction)

Decreased -

  • Lack of protein (celiac disease, nephrotic syndrome)
  • Severe liver disease (end-stage cirrhosis, hepatitis)
  • Over hydration (psychogenic water-drinking)

Creatinine -

Increased -

  • Impaired kidney function
  • Lot of meat in the diet
  • Very large muscle mass
  • Anabolic steroid users

Decreased -

  • not significant

Uric Acid -

Increased -

  • Renal failure
  • Gout
  • Increased breakdown on nucleoprotein (burns, crush injury)
  • Haemolytic anaemia
  • Patient receiving thiazide diuretics

Decreased -

  • not significant

Sodium -

Hypernatremia (increased Sodium) -

  • Dehydration
  • Diarrhoea (water loss)
  • Hyperadrenalism (Cushing's syndrome)
  • Aldosteronism

Hyponatremia (decreased sodium) -

  • Over hydration
  • Diarrhoea (sodium loss)
  • Intestinal fistula
  • Addison's disease (hypoadrenalism)
  • Renal disease, tubular dysfunction


Potassium -

Hyperkalaemia (increased potassium) -

  • Tissue damage or impairment of renal clearance of K+ Shock
  • Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (tissue breakdown, utilization of protein for calories)
  • Dehydration
  • Adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease)

Hyperkalaemia (decreased potassium) -

  • Poor food intake
  • Prolonged intravenous glucose or NaCl (without K+)
  • Vomiting
  • GI fistulas (mostly intestinal)

Chloride -

Hypochloraemia (increased chloride) -

  • Dehydration
  • Hyperchloremic acidosis (loss of HCO3- due to diarrhoea or renal tubular acidosis with compensatory increase in chloride).
  • Stimulation of respiratory centre (drugs, hysteria, anxiety, fever, hyperventilation) causes loss of CO2 and decrease in HCO3-, with compensatory increase in chloride.
  • High altitudes (small effect which is due to hyperventilation), causing loss of CO2 and decrease in HCO3-, with compensatory increase in chloride

Hypochloraemia (decreased chloride) -

  • Over hydration
  • Hypoventilation (CO2 retention)
  • Depression of central nervous system (CO2 retention), with increased CO2 and HCO3- and compensatory decrease in chloride.
  • Pulmonary disease (CO2 retention), with increased CO2 and HCO3- and compensatory decrease in chloride.
  • Chronic renal disease
  • Diabetic ketosis

Reference ranges of parameters in Kidney Function Test / Renal Function Test


Serum Creatinine

  • 0.6 to 1.2 milligrams per decilitre in adult males
  • 0.5 to 1.1 milligrams per decilitre in adult females.

Urea

  • 20-40 mg/dL

Potassium

  • 3.5-5.5 mEq/L

Sodium

  • 135-147 mEq/L

Calcium (total)

  • 9-11 mg/dL

Chloride

  • 98-106 mEq/L

For more information of Kidney Function Test or Renal Function Test, the following resources may be useful




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